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The smoke may have collected on the ceiling of their caves as soot.Later, when lamps were invented, people used oil as a fuel.When oil burns, carbon is released in the reaction, forming a sooty covering on the inside of the lamp. Lampblack was also often mixed with olive oil or balsam gum to make ink.And ancient Egyptians sometimes used lampblack as eyeliner.As an element, carbon occurs in a striking variety of forms.Coal, soot, and diamonds are all nearly pure forms of carbon.Carbon allotropes that lack crystalline structure are amorphous, or without crystalline shape.

Carbon is the sixth most common element in the universe and the fourth most common element in the solar system.Their densities vary depending on where they originate. The combustion (burning) of coal gave rise to the Industrial Revolution (1700-1900).Another highly important and very unusual property of carbon is its ability to form long chains.For example, diamond is the hardest natural substance known. The Mohs scale is a way of expressing the hardness of a material. The melting point of diamond is about 3,700°C (6,700°F) and its boiling point is about 4,200°C (7,600°F). On the other hand, graphite is a very soft material. Sublimination is the process by which a solid changes directly to a gas when heated, without first changing to a liquid.Its density is about 1.5 to 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter.

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